یکشنبه, 15 آذر 1394 ساعت 11:38

Geography And Climate

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Geography And Climate

Covering an area of 1,648,000 square kilometers (slightly larger than Alaska), the Islamic Republic of Iran is located in southwestern Asia and one of the most important countries in the Middle East. The Caspian Sea, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Armenia in the north; Afghanistan and Pakistan in the east; Turkey and Iraq in the west surround the country



Iran is situated at the heart of the Middle East (Geographic coordinates: 32 00 N, 53 00 E) and, as a bridge, links the Caspian Sea, the largest land-locked body of water in the earth, to the Persian Gulf.  On the south, Iran borders the Persian Gulf and the Sea of Oman. Considering its vast geographical expanse, it’s been uniquely situated amongst the 3 big International ecozones of Palearctic, Indomalaya and Afrotropic which has resulted to the climate that ranges from subtropical to sub polar, its varying ecosystems and biodiversity of flora and fauna is unparalleled in the world. The overall elevation of the plateau of Iran gives many provinces an altitude of over 1,000 m., falling sharply to 25 m. below sea level along the northern coastal region. The wide range of temperature in Iran, from as low as -20°C in the northern mountains to as high as +40° in the south in a single day along with the existence of high mountains as well as flat plains, desert areas, rivers and lakes contributing to unique geographical conditions in which, at any time of the year, and in each section of the country, one of the four seasons is visible. Thus, in winter, swimming and water skiing are possible in the warm waters of the Persian Gulf, and meanwhile winter sports, like skiing are possible in the northern and western mountains of the country, while one can enjoy the pleasant spring weather along the shores of the Caspian Sea at the same time of the year

As regards to the number and variety of its archeological sites and relics, Iran is considered as one of the ten most important countries in the world, but looking at its astonishing geographical features and huge natural diversity for a country the size of Iran , it is rated among the top 5 in the world. Among significant characteristics of the vast land of Iran is that it has many amazing landscapes in such unexpected places. Unique landscapes such as limpid water springs, pomegranate orchards, pistachio gardens, rows of lombardy poplars, decampment of nomads in different seasons, desert nights with bright stars, rocky mountains, endless high and low lands, extinct snow-clad volcanoes, dense forests of the Alborz Mountain Range, and coastlines of the Caspian Sea, the Persian Gulf and the Sea of Oman are all eye-catching and memorable

The two well-known deserts of Iran, Dasht-e-Loot and Dasht-e-Kavir, covering an area of over 360,000 square kilometers, are amongst the most interesting yet unknown places. It is believed that before any country has had any hotel structure anywhere in the world, Iran had a chain of ancient hotels known as Caravanserais in the way of Silk Road at the heart of Dasht-e-Kavir desert .With the rainfall very close to zero in Kavir-e Lout, it is no wonder that the Kavir-e Lout can be easily well over compared to the driest and hottest deserts in the world. At the same time Dasht-e-Kavir is full with desert flora, salt water lakes and big caravanserais which can create a good base for the desert tourism. Geographically Iran deserts are unique due to the existence of different land structures close together in almost one region; basically one can spot the salt lakes near sandy dunes, the salt glaciers near the rocky summits, wide open lands with no vegetation near the fascinating flat mosaic-like plates of salt on the verge of salt marshes or the scenery of moving sands close to their oasis towns.  Among all of this you may find a very adaptable architecture of villages. Plain villages follow an ancient rectangular pattern. High mud walls with towers from the outer face of the houses, which have flat roofs of mud and straw supported by wooden rafters. In the open centre of the village is an occasional mosque, sometimes serving as a school, too. These are all among motivations that prompt the lovers of natural geography to embark on a trip to the deserts of Iran

Almost 50%of this marvelous land is covered by the mountains, and comparing to the whole Europe with only few important summit over 4000m, this land enjoys at least 500 summits over 4000m, many of them completely alpine style and 3 main volcanic summit all together have created suitable conditions for winter and mountain sports. Amongst these high altitude peaks are numerous springs, lakes and wetlands that have their own beautiful and eye-catching landscapes. The magnificent Alborz Mountain Range in the north, the Zagross Mountain Range in the west and some other mountain chains, which extend from Khorassan to Baluchestan in the east, surround the plateau of Iran which is mostly desert in the middle

The Persian Gulf is one of the oldest waterways exploited by man from time immemorial; its area up to the Hormoz strait is 232,850 square kilometers. It stretches one thousand kilometers from ‘Arvand Rood (the Arvand River) down to the mouth of the Hormoz strait, embracing the southwestern coast of Iran. Iran consists of 24 provinces, 195 towns and cities and 500 districts, the population in Iran, according to the latest census, is 60 million people 

The most important summits in Iran are: Damavand (5,671 m.-volcanic) northeast of Tehran; Alam-kouh (4,850 m.) in Kelardasht; Sabalan (4,811 m.volcanic) west of Ardabil. The Alborz Mountains which stand in a little distance parallel to the coast form a natural block against

coast form a natural block against

the huge amount of clouds originating from the Caspian Sea and moving toward the Central plateau of Iran. The rainfalls and humidity resulting from this natural phenomenon create the densest and the most beautiful broad-leaf forests of Iran in a width of 20 to 70 kilometers, representing the southernmost limit of Euro-Siberian floral elements. Tourists in Iran can also take advantage of some different breath-taking geographical feature in the central deserts of Iran: single desertious summits with over 3000m height neighboring the vast sandy hill deserts. Complexity and diversity of geological and calcareous structures have contributed to the formation of so many natural caves in different provinces

The mountains of Iran belong to the folding of the Cenozoic Period and some of them, with volcanic origins, have brought about the means of formation of thermal springs. With more than 500 known mineral water and thermal springs used for different purposes, Iran has an important potential in this regard, so the operation of spa tours in Iran is also possible. Most of these springs are located in the Alborz Mountain Range, in Azarbayjan and in the Zagross Mountain and some are located close to Esfahan

In January and February, there are three climatic zones in Iran. Shores of the Caspian Sea have mild and relatively cold weather, central parts have typical winter weather, and southern parts enjoy moderate and pleasant weather. Broadly speaking, the further south you go the warmer it becomes.  Most regions of Iran enjoy pleasant weather in the spring, especially in April. However, the weather in southern regions of Iran grows very hot unexpectedly as early as March
The climatic conditions of the country become more diverse in the summer. Due to high humidity, the weather at the Caspian Sea coast is hot during the day, but it is pleasant at night. The regions along the mountainous parts of the country have milder summers and colder winters. In Tehran, summer days are hot, dry and stuffy, but you only have to make a short bus ride up to the foothills of Damavand to cool down by several degrees. But it is not humid, and the evenings are cool and refreshing. Winters in the capital can be very chilly, extremely so at night, although any snow usually disappears by early March. Showers are frequent between November and mid May, but rare in summer

 In the southern coastlines of Iran, days are very hot and nights are relatively warm with high humidity, which can be intolerable by non-natives. It is therefore recommended that tourists choose their travel destinations while taking the weather conditions into account. The best seasons for traveling to Iran is spring and autumn. However, in every season there are provinces which are more favorable than others from climatic point of view. Basically spring and early summer is perfect for the cultural, historical and eco-tours visits to Iran while autumn and early winter is suitable for the desert tours and nomad and cultural visits. Midsummer is also perfect for the eco-adventure and climbing in Iran

Tourists, who visit the southern coasts of Iran in winter, can enjoy very pleasant weather; while at the same time the cities of Esfahan and Fars provinces are rainy and snowy. In general, in the summer, the weather in most parts of the country is warm but not intolerable. Spring and autumn are suitable for touring all around the country. Altogether, the Iranian climate varies considerably from the rainy north and snowy northwest and west to the southern sunbelt, so take this into account as you pack your suitcase. In summer take lightweight and easily washed clothes of natural fabrics, a cardigan or pullover for the cooler nights, a pair of sunglasses and a hat which will protect your face from the sun

We believe that Iran is a land of extraordinary contrasts


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